Whale Lab Publications

 

Journal Publications

Duffus, D.A. 1986.  Is There a Role for Geographers in Whale Management? Studies in Coastal and Marine Geography 6, December 1986, St. Mary’s University, Halifax.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden, 1990. Non-consumptive Wildlife-Oriented Recreation: A Conceptual Framework. Biological Conservation 53:213-231.                       

Duffus, D.A. and K. Wipond, 1992.  A Review of Institutionalization of Wildlife Viewing in British Columbia, Canada. The Northwest Environmental Journal 8(2):325-346.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden 1992. Whales, Science, and Protected Area Management in British Columbia, Canada. The George Wright Forum 9 (3-4):79-87.

Duffus, D.A. 1993. Tsitika to Baram: The Myth of Sustainability”. Invited Essay, Conservation Biology 7(2):440-442.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden 1993, Recreational Use and Management of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) on Canada’s Pacific Coast.” Environmental Conservation 2(2):150-156.

Malcolm, C.D. and D. A. Duffus, 1996.  Small scale behaviour of large scale subjects: Diving behaviour of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Western Geographer 5/6:35-44.

Baird, R.W. and D.A. Duffus, 1996.Killer whales, whale-watching and management: A status report. Whalewatcher, The Journal of the American Cetacean Society. Fall/Winter 1995:14-17.

Baird, R.W., P.J. Stacey, and D.A. Duffus A preliminary evaluation of incidental mortality of small cetaceans in coastal fisheries in British Columbia. Marine Mammal Science 13(2):321-326.

Murphy, D.D. and D.A. Duffus. 1996. Conservation Biology and Marine Biodiversity. Conservation Biology 10(2):311-312.

Duffus, D.A. 1997. A spatial perspective on the ecology and management of the recreational use of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in southern Clayoquot Sound, Canada.  Applied Geography 16(3):179-190.

Malcom, C.D. and D.A. Duffus 2000.  Comparison of subjective and statistical methods of dive classification using dive data from a time-depth recorder attached to a gray whale. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2(3):177.182

Dunham, J.S. and D. A. Duffus 2001. Foraging patterns of gray whales in central Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 223:299-310

Dunham, J.S. and D.A. Duffus. 2002. Diet of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada.  Marine Mammal Science 18 (2):419-437.

Baird, R.W., P.J. Stacey, K. Langelier, and D.A. Duffus, 2002. An evaluation of gray whale (Eschirichtius robustus) mortality incidental to fishing operations in British Columbia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(3):289-296.

Jelinski, D.E. C. Kruger, and D.A. Duffus, 2002.  Geostatistical analysis of interactions between killer whales (Orcinus orca) and recreational whale-watching boats.  Applied Geography 22:393-411.

E.M. Hines, K. Adulyanukosol, and D.A. Duffus, 2005. Dugong (Dugong dugon) Abundance along the Andaman Coast of Thailand. Marine Mammal Science 21(3):535-549

E.M. Hines, K. Adulyanukosol, P. Dearden and D.A. Duffus, 2005.Community Perspectives and Conservation Needs for Dugongs (Dugong dugon) Along the Andaman Coast of Thailand.  Environmental Management 36(5):654-664

Turner, S., L. Gould, and D.A. Duffus. 2005. Maternal behaviour and infant congenital limb malformation in a free-ranging group of “Macaca fuscata” on Awaji Island, Japan.  Int. Journ. of Primatology 26(6): 1435-1457     

Kerr, K. and D.A. Duffus 2006. Timing of larval release in the porcelain crab, Petrolisthes cinctipes (Decapoda, Anomura), in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia.  Crustaceana 78(9):1041-1051

Szabo, A. and D.A. Duffus, 2008.  Mother-offspring association in the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae): Following behaviour in an aquatic mammal. Animal Behaviour 75:1085-1092.

Nelson, T.A., D.A. Duffus, C. Robertson and L.J. Feyrer, 2008. Spatial-temporal patterns in the intra-annual foraging activity of gray whales. Marine Mammal Science 24(2):356-370

Nelson, T.A., Duffus, D., Robertson, C., Laberee, K. and Feyrer, L.J.,2009. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine wildlife. Journal of Coastal Research. Special Issue 56: 1537-1541.

Feyrer, L.J. 2010 Differences in embryo production between sympatric species of mysids (family Mysidae) in the shallow coastal waters oV Vancouver Island, BC.   Marine Biology (2010) 157:2461–2465.

Feyrer, L.J. and D.A. Duffus, 2011.  Predatory Disturbance and prey Species Diversity:  The Case of Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Foraging ion a Multi-species Mysid(Family Mysidae) Community.  Hydrobiologia 678(1):37-47

Duffus D.A, R.E. Burnham, L.J. Feyrer. 2013 Ecology, Scales and Gray whales.  Whalewatcher Journal of the American Cetacean Society 42(1):24-28

Burnham, R.E. and D.A. Duffus.  Patterns of Predator-Prey Dynamics Between Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus) and Mysid Species in Clayoquot Sound. Accepted, International Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.

Feyrer, L.J. and D.A. Duffus. 2014. Threshold foraging by gray whales in response to fine scale variation of mysid density. Marine Mammal Science

Burnham, R.E, 2015. Reproductive strategies conferring species dominance in marine mysid (Peracarida, Mysida) species in coastal waters off Vancouver Island, B.C. Crustaceana 88, 1421-1438

Stevenson, K.K. Using long-term ecological research to promote sustainable whale-watching practices in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia. Extended abstract, Accepted, Tourism in Marine Environments.

Burnham, R.E. and D.A.Duffus, 2016. Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) predation and the demise of amphipod prey in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Aquatic Mammals,  42(2), 123-126, DOI 10.1578/AM.42.2.2016.123

Burham R.E., Palm R.S., Duffus D.A., Mouy X., Riera A. 2016. The combined use of visual and acoustic data collection techniques for winter killer whale (Orcinus orca) observations. Global Ecology and Conservation, 8: 24-30


Books, Chapters, Monographs

Duffus, D.A. amd P. Dearden1993. Marine Parks in Canada, Parks and Protected areas in Canada: Planning and Management, P. Dearden and R. Rollins eds., Oxford University Press, (co-author).

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden, 1993. Managing Ocean Wildlife: A Case Study of Recreational Use and Management of Killer Whales (Orcinus Orca) on Canada’s Pacific Coast. In: The Ocean Change: Management Policies and the Environment, J.L. Suarez DeVivero (ed) Universidad de Sevilla: 189-196.

Hines, E.H., D.A. Duffus, , and P. Dearden 2004.Dugongs in Trang Province, Thailand: Recommendations for Conservation Strategy. In Munro, N.W.P., P. Dearden, T.B. Herman, K. Beazley, and S. Bondrup-Nielsen (eds) 2004. Making Ecosystem Based Management Work: Connecting Managers and Researchers, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 11-16, May 2003, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada: SAMPAA.

Malcolm, C.D. and D.A. Duffus, 2008.  Specialization of Whale Watchers in British Columbia Coastal Waters. In J.E.S. Higham and M. Luck Eds, Marine Wildlife and Tourism Management, CABI, Oxfordshire, pp. 109-129

Laskin, D.N., D.A. Duffus and D.J. Bender, 2010. Mysteries of the not so deep: An investigation into gray whale habitat use along the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.  In: J. Breman (ed) Ocean Globe, ESRI Press Academic, Redlands California, PP: 105-120.


Reports and Minor Publication

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  Non-consumptive Use and Management of Whales, Robson Bight Study Area, 1986, Report submitted to Ecological Reserves Program, British Columbia Ministry of Parks, Victoria, British Columbia.

Duffus, D.A. The Potential of Whale Watching for Tourism, submitted to Tourism Research, British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, Victoria, British Columbia, 1986

Duffus, D.A. Book Review of the Whale Way, by David Day, Park News 23(3), 1987.

Duffus, D.A. Robson Bight: Reserved for Killer Whales, Park News 22(4) 15-18. 1988

Duffus, D.A. Book Review, The Twilight Seas, A Blue Whale's Journey, by Sally Callighar, Borealis May-June, 1990.

Duffus, D.A. Book Review, Zoo the Last Ark and Zoo Culture, Borealis Winter 1991.

Duffus, D.A. Book Review, Last Chance to See, by D. Adams and M. Carwardine. Borealis, Fall 1991.

Duffus, D.A. Book Review, Manatees and Dugongs, by J.E. Reynolds III and Dr. K. Odell. Borealis, 3(4) 61-62.

Duffus, D.A. (ed) A Primer for Marine Protected Areas.  Report submitted to the Land Use Coordination Office, Victoria, BC, 256pp.


Conference Presentations

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  People in the Oceanic Wilderness. Invited poster at the Congress of Delegates and Oceanic Wilderness sessions of the 4th World Wilderness Congress, Denver, Co., August 14-19, 1987.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  A Conceptual Framework for the Examination of Changing Requirements in Whale Management. Western Division of the Canadian Ass. of Geographers Ann. Meeting, March 1987.

Dearden, P., D.A. Duffus and C.P. Keller Changing Regions of Man-Whale Interactions-A Macro, Meso, and Micro Perspective. Western Regional Science Association Annual Meeting, Kona, Hawaii, February 1987.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  Whale-watching in British Columbia: Human Dimensions and Theoretical Links. 1989 Annual Meeting, Canadian Association of Geographers, Chicoutimi, Quebec.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  A Model for Management of Recreational Use of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). Third International Orca Symposium, March 1990, Victoria.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  A Conceptual Framework for Analysis and Management of Wildlife Oriented Recreation in the Coastal Zone. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, April 1990, Toronto.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden.  Managing Ocean Wildlife: A Case Study of Recreational Use and Management of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) on Canada's Pacific Coast.  IGU commission on Marine Geography Conference, May 22-25, 1991, Huelva, Spain.

Dearden, P. and D.A. Duffus.  Killer Whales, Science, and Protected Area Management in British Columbia, Canada.  World Congress of Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, February, 1992.

Duffus, D.A. and P. Dearden. Geographical Analysis of Gray Whale Feeding Behaviour, Southern Clayoquot Sound, B.C. Canadian Assoc. of Geographers' Ann. Meeting, U.B.C., May 1992.

Ang, M.H. and D. A. Duffus.  A Preliminary Analysis of the Use and Management of Freshwater Fisheries Resources of the Baram River, Sarawak, Malaysia. Northwest Consortium of Southeast Asia Scholars, 5th Annual Conference, Vancouver, B.C., 1992.

Dearden, P., D.A. Duffus,. Analysis of Spatial Pattern of Non-consumptive Interaction with Killer Whales. Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, March 1993.

Duffus, D.A. Some Observations on Teaching Nature Conservation in a Geography Curriculum. Canadian Association of Geographers Annual Meeting, Ottawa, May 31 - June 3, 1993.

Duffus, D.A. A Review of the Development and Current Status of Marine Mammal Management in Canada. Invited to the symposium session "Marine Law," Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine mammals, Galveston, Texas, November 11-15, 1993.

Dearden, P. and D.A. Duffus. Whale-watching on the Pacific Coast, Perception and Reality.  Environment, Perception and Reality in Canada, Grainau, Germany, Feb. 7-19, 1995.

Duffus, D.A. . A conceptual approach to Conservation Planning in situations of uncertainty.11th Biennial Conf. on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, Fl., Dec, 1996.

Duffus, D.A. A Comparative Study of Cetacean Conservation: Common Issues from Two Case Studies. 11th Annual Meeting, Society For Conservation Biology, Jun 6-9/97 Victoria, BC.

Duffus, D.A. Ecology and Recreational Use of Gray Whales in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island, Canada, 1991-97.  World Marine Mammal Science Conference, Monaco, Jan. 1998.

Dunham, J.S. and D.A. Duffus. Threshold Levels of three prey types determined for feeding gray whales in Clayquot Sound, British Columbia. 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Wailea, Maui, Nov. 1999..

Bass, J. and D.A. Duffus. Behaviour of foraging gray whales in the presence of whale-watching vessels.13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Wailea, Maui, Nov. 1999.

Tombach, C., and D.A. Duffus.  Gray whale (Eschricthius robustus) site fidelity in Clayoquot Sound; A multi-scale approach to spatial behaviour. Biennial Conf. on the Biol. of Marine Mammals, Wailea, Maui, Nov. 1999.

Hines, E.H. and D.A. Duffus. A power analysis of the possible effects of whale-watching vessels on changes in dive behaviour in gray whales in Clayquot Sound, British Columbia.13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Wailea, Maui, Nov. 1999 (co-author).

Duffus, D.A. Ecology and management of recovering populations: Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) on Canada’s Pacific coast. Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, June 9-12, 2000, Missoula, Montana

Meier, S.M. and Duffus, D.A. A multi-scale spatial analysis of gray whale habitat use and site selection in Clayoquot Sound, Canada. Second Workshop on GIS/Remote Sensing for Marine Mammal Science, November 28, 2001, Vancouver..

Patterson, H.M. and D.A. Duffus. Gray whale prey selection and prey dynamics in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, 1993-1997. 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Nov. 28-Dec. 3, 2001, Vancouver BC.

Hines, E.H. and D.A. Duffus. Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance in Trang Province along the Andaman Coast of Thailand. 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Nov. 28-Dec. 3, 2001, Vancouver BC..

Meier, S. and D.A. Duffus.  Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) habitat selection in Clayoquot Sound, BC Canada: A multiscale approach to assessing habitat use. 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Nov. 28-Dec. 3, 2001, Vancouver BC .

Patterson, H. and D.A. Duffus. Dynamics of mysid prey of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Clayoquot Sound. 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Nov. 28-Dec. 3, 2001, Vancouver BC

Tombach, C. and D.A. Duffus. Gray whale ( Eschrichtius robustus) site fidelity in Clayoquot Sound; A multi-scale approach to spatial behaviour. 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Nov. 28-Dec. 3, 2001, Vancouver BC

Malcolm, C.D. , D.A. Duffus and R. Rollins. The case for site specific education strategies in ecotourism management: Whale-watching in Vancouver Island waters.  10th Canadian Congress on Leisure, May 22-24, 2002, Edmonton, Alberta

Hines, E.H. and D.A. Duffus. Dugongs in Trang Province, Thailand.  Recommendations for conservation strategy.   Fifth International Conference of Science and the Management of Protected Areas. Univ. of Victoria, May11-16, 2003.

Duffus, D.A.2002 Peculiar Parables of the Planktivorous: The Tale of the Tail. Western Div. Canadian Assoc. of Geographers Annual Meeting, Lethbridge Alta., March 11-14 2005

York, L.D. and D.A. Duffus. Using LANDSAT imagery to measure interannual variability in coastal kelp stands. Western Div. Canadian Assoc. of Geographers Annual Meeting, Lethbridge Alta., March 11-14 2005.

Patterson, A. and D.A. Duffus. Benthic ecology and gray whale response in Clayoquot Sound.   Western Div. Canadian Assoc. of Geographers Annual Meeting, Lethbridge Alta., March 11-14 2005. 

Feyrer, L.J. and D.A. Duffus. Spatial and temporal variability in the foraging behaviour of gray whales (Eschrichitus robustus) in Clayoqout Sound 1997-2004.   Western Div. Canadian Assoc. of Geographers Annual Meeting, Lethbridge Alta., March 11-14 2005. 

Duffus, D.A. Unravelling the multi-scale melange of gray whale ecology on the summer foraging areas of the west coast of Vancouver Island.  16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dec. 12-17, 2005, San Diego, CA.

Olsen, S.O. and D.A. Duffus. Patch foraging dynamics and prey response in a gray whales summer foraging areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dec. 12-17, 2005, San Diego, CA.

Short, C.J. and D.A. Duffus Gray whales and marine protected areas: A multi-trophic level approach to assessing functional ecological association.  16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dec. 12-17, 2005, San Diego, CA.

Feyrer, L.J. and D.A. Duffus.  Spatial variability and analysis of the foraging behaviour of gray whales (Eschrichitus robustus) in Clayoqout Sound 1997-2005. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dec. 12-17, 2005, San Diego, CA.

Patterson, H. and D.A. Duffus.The fine scale biogeography and dynamics of mysid prey populations in a gray whale foraging area. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dec. 12-17, 2005, San Diego, CA.

Patterson, A. and D.A. Duffus.  Gray whale foraging and benthic ecology of Clayoquot Sound, BC. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dec. 12-17, 2005, San Diego, CA.

Pasztor, C.J. and D. A. Duffus. Living on the line:  A relationship between foraging gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) and their prey.  Western Division of the Canadian Assocation of Geographers Annual Meting, March 11-12, Abbotsford, BC.

Duffus, D.A., and L.J. Feyrer,. The Implications of Rampant Consumerism by A Large Grey (Gray) Mammal: Not an Elephant.  Invited paper, Symposium on Comparative Ecology and Behaviour of the Vertebrates, Cape Town SA, Nov. 28, 2007

Duffus, D.A. Some like it hot: A method for locating and analyzing hot spots in whale foraging. 17th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Martine Mammals, Nov. 27-Dec 1, 2007, Cape Town South Africa. 

Feyrer, L.J. and D.A. Duffus, The Development of Spatially Explicit Habitat Models To Predict Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Occurrence in a Summer Foraging Site.  17th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Martine Mammals, Nov. 27-Dec 1, 2007, Cape Town South Africa. 

Pasztor, C.J. and D. A. Duffus. Living on the line: An association between foraging gray whales and their prey. 17th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Martine Mammals, Nov. 27-Dec 1, 2007, Cape Town South Africa.

Muirhead, K., Pasztor, C.J., Malcolm, C.D. and Duffus, D. A..  Marbled murrelets foraging in association with gray whales in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada. 17th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Martine Mammals, Nov. 27-Dec 1, 2007, Cape Town South Africa.

Feyrer, L.J.,Duffus, D.A and C.T. Tombach-Wright. The Beggar’s Banquet : Gray Whale Predator-Prey Dynamics on the Outskirts.  Presented to, A Workshop : Gray Whales as Sentinels for Ocean Change in the Northeast Pacific, Monterey Cal. Nov. 17, 2009.

Feyrer, L.J. and Duffus, D.A..  Between a rock and a hard place – Fine scale behavioural interactions connecting Predator and prey. Presented to the European Cetacean Society Annual Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, Mar. 2-4 2009.

Duffus, D.A. and L.J. Feyrer. Predator-Prey Dynamics of Gray Whales and Mysids in a Summer Foraging Site. Presented to the European Cetacean Society Annual Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, Mar. 2-4 2009.

Muirhead, K., C.D. Malcolm, and D.A. Duffus. Seasonal Variation in At-Sea Habitat Use of Marbled Murrelets in Clayoquot Sound BC, Canada.  Paper presented to the Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, March 22-27, 2009, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Duffus, D.A. And L.J. Feyrer.  View from the top: Gray whale system architecture at a peripheral summer foraging site.  Presented to the 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa Florida, Nov 27-Dec. 3, 2011.

Burnham, R.E. and D.A. Duffus. Whale foraging ecology on the west coast of Vancouver Island: Mysid-e of the Story. Presented to the 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa Florida, Nov 27-Dec. 3, 2011.

Kent, L.A. and D.A. Duffus. A Vision of whales: A marine Mammal research program for Individuals who are blind or visually impaired.  Presented to the 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa Florida, Nov 27-Dec. 3, 2011.

Clare, J.A., D.A. Duffus and C. Tombach-Wright. The structure of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) feeding aggregation in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada. Presented to the 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa Florida, Nov 27-Dec. 3, 2011.

Stevenson, K.K. and D.A. Duffus. Using long-term ecological research to promote sustainable whale-watching practices in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia. Presented to the 20th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dunedin, New Zealand, Dec. 9-13, 2013.

Stevenson, K.K., Malcolm, C.D. and D.A. Duffus. Socio-economic and ecological considerations in the development of the whale-watching industry in Clayoquot Sound, BC, 1986-2013, and recommendations for future management. Presented to the 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Kailua-Kona, Hawai’I, Nov.10-13, 2015.

Burnham, R.E. and D.A. Duffus. Playing hide and seek with gray whales. Presented to the 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Francisco, Dec. 7-12, 2015.